xvii + 200 pp.
£25 / $42.50 / €30
£50 / $85 / €60
The Son of Man in the Gospel of John
J. Harold Ellens
J. Harold Ellens here explores the intriguing question of why, in Johnís Gospel, Jesus called himself the ĎSon of Maní, virtually the only title he gave himself in the Fourth Gospel, and a title virtually no one else ever used for him.
In Second Temple Judaism there were several traditions about the Son of Man. In Ezekiel the term Ďson of maní means Ďmere mortalí. In Daniel, on the other hand, the Son of Man is a heavenly figure with authority to destroy evil and establish Godís reign on earth. In 1 Enoch, the Son of Man is a human being appointed by God as an eschatological judge. In Matthew, Mark, and Luke the Son of Man is a man who builds the kingdom of God on earth. Jesus also depicts himself as the Suffering Servant, who will die at the hands of the Jerusalem authorities and be exalted by God to heavenly status as the final Judge.
In this monograph the focus is on the Son of Man in the Gospel of John. There is nothing of the Ezekiel tradition in John, but Danielís heavenly Son of Man is evident in the mind of this Gospelís author, who envisages him as divine, of heavenly origin. Indeed, in John the Son of Man is the divine Logos, Godís revelation of himself. As against the Enochic and Synoptic Son of Man, the Johannine Son of Man is not a human being who is exalted to heaven and who will come again as the final Judge. He is a divine figure who descends to earth to remove evil now, by forgiving sins and by establishing Godís universal reign.
J. Harold Ellens is Research Scholar, Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
A. Setting the Stage (Defining the Topic)
B. History of Research and Status quaestionis
1. The Ancient Pre-critical Phase
2. The Modern Critical Phase
3. The Contemporary Critical Phase (1950-present)
A. The Son of Man Logia in the Fourth Gospel
B. Summary of the Johannine Logia
A. The Son of Man Logia in the Synoptic Gospels
B. Summary of the Identity and Function of the Son of Man in the Synoptic Gospels
A. Ezekiel and the Gospel of John
B. Daniel and the Gospel of John
C. The Parables of Enoch and the Gospel of John
D. Excursus: 4 Ezra and the Gospel of John
E. Conclusion: The Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John
Summary and Conclusion